Corals are the keystone species which give structure and complexity to coral reef ecosystems. They are subject to large-scale regional incidents, such as bleaching-induced death and predation by Crown-of-thorns starfish. Corals are also very vulnerable to climate change. Scientists predicting that global climate change will significantly degrade coral reef ecosystems within 50 years, as a result of rising sea surface temperatures and ocean acidification.
In 2010 and 2016, coral reefs in southern of Bali has impacted by global climate change. The worst of mass coral bleaching was 2016 where about 55,4% of Nusa Dua coral reefs was record bleached and its remain under threats by human activities. As an effort to restore coral reefs damaged in southern of Bali, Nusa Dua Reef Foundation collaboration with local stakeholders was initiated a coral rehabilitation project. The project started in 2009 at Nusa Dua area, then expand to Tanjung Benoa area in 2012 and Pandawa, Kutuh Village in 2013. The project use artificial reefs and coral transplantation techniques along with local management interventions. This technique is expected improve ecosystem resilience, then those reefs have at least some chance of surviving as productive and functional systems (albeit with less biodiversity) in the face of the global impacts that cannot be managed at the local level.
During 2009-2016 years, a total of 216 artificial reefs structures with various forms have been placed in underwater of Nusa Dua and Tanjung Benoa area and 30 concrete structures in Pandawa beach. The beneficiary of this project is attract marine tourism activities such as snorkeling, diving and dive walker, research and education. In addition to providing economic and ecological benefits, the program is intended to raise public awareness among the operators, tourists, government and local people. This program was supported by private sector, local government, and also individuals.